The Curious case of the Forex market: An Insight into Forex Trading

The foreign exchange market, or forex in short is the global decentralized marketplace for currency trade. A recent study of the global markets put forex at the pinnacle of all trading markets with more than 5.1 trillion in daily trade volume. With advancements in trading practices and with trading software being squeezed down to smartphones and tablets, the lucrative market has now been open to more people than ever. Forex trading has now become a safer investment option to new traders looking to grow their money in the short term and in long term investments as well.

Forex 101: An Introduction

Forex is a fast paced and volatile monetary market where money can be made in the matter of seconds or minutes. Contrary to stock markets, which is a path much trodden by new investors, the foreign exchange market is an elusive market for many, due to the initial hiccups of misinformation and complications of international financial environment.

One salient characteristic of the forex market is the fact that there is no central marketplace like the stock exchanges of different countries like New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) for the US, Tokyo Stock Exchange (TYO) for Japan, or National Stock Exchange (NSE) for India.

Currency trading in the Forex market is orchestrated by electronic Over The Counter (OTC) process, where the exchange of currency is done by means of a broker-dealer network, rather than a centralized network. The forex trading marketplace is factually open throughout the day, and currencies are traded in major financial centers of the world, for five days a week and half day on the weekend. As the time zone changes from different financial centers like London, New York, Tokyo etc, the forex market is open throughout the day, as when one market, say London closes, another one in a different time zone is open. This provides a unique advantage for the trader, because the forex market can be active throughout the day and the exchange rates would be ever changing depending on the market conditions.

Learn the ropes of the Forex market

The forex market is the holy grail of financial markets. Even though it has been around for a long time, it was not an investment tool for the masses due to the lack and complications of getting oneself into a trader with the forex marketplace. But with the advancements in electronic trading, and the streamlining of the cumbersome registration and enlisting process by incorporating mass market support apparatus by means of easily accessible tools and software, users can now simply download an app on their iPhone or android device and start navigating the waters of the Foreign Exchange Market.

Forex market, like other financial markets works by speculating the value of one currency over another. The word ‘speculation’ is synonymous with operation of any financial market. But in forex, profit could be made by the dynamic analysis of marketplace behaviour which is being affected by many different key factors- predictions, international diplomacy, and domestic market behaviours of individual countries. The different entities that drive the exchange prices can intimidate new investors, but if you get the basics right, it is easier to understand the baseline of how forex works by studying the value change of currency with the major events of the day.

For example, when the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) meets for taking a call on oil prices, the currency value of the participating countries like Saudi Arabia or Qatar fluctuates. If the overall estimate of world demand is positive, the Saudi Rial and the other OPEC currencies would be getting a bump on exchange prices. Or, if the US imposes a new trade law over outsourcing technology infrastructure development, the Indian Currency, Rupee, would have a downturn in the forex marketplace, which would trigger more volatility in the forex market.

Speculating on the Forex market is about making informed bets on the market trajectory in hope of making healthy returns. Speculating should not be confused with Gambling. In Gambling, a trader makes a financial decision even though the risks involved is high and the chances of a profit grim. In any healthy financial decision, a trader should make an informed decision on his investment and the end goals should be foreseen by minimizing risk and maximizing return opportunity.

The salient advantage of Forex Trading is that the market is open six days of the week, which gives the traders freedom of accessing the market anytime.

The largest volume of forex trade, by volume is the US Dollar against the Eurozone Currencies, Japan, Great Britain and Switzerland. In the Asian Zone the major forex pairs are the Indian Rupee and the Japanese Yen. These two countries, characterized by their stable economies and high growth rate sees a high-volume action in the Asian Forex markets. There are up to 20 different major currency pairs depending on the brokerage you are affiliated with.

The foreign exchange market is structured in such a way that different types of investors have different levels where they operate and trade in. Interbank foreign exchange market is the topmost level for forex trading. This level is composed of commercial multinational banks and securities dealers like J.P Morgan & Co., Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley. In this level, the major movements in the forex market is predicted with a large army of analysts and AI (Artificial Intelligence) driven investment architecture, and the information is largely secretive as this tier sees the largest gross turnover by volume. As they operate with high volumes, these types of investors can ask for competitive bids among each other, as each trading entity entitles itself for their ask and bid prices by ensuring a large number of transactions in large amounts. The Interbank Foreign Exchange accounts for 51% of all the proceedings. Pension funds, smaller banks, mutual funds, insurance companies, Hedge funds and large multinational corporations like Aramco of Saudi Arabia, or Reliance Investment Group in India.

Individual investors in the forex market gets their investment actions done via brokers or banks. Some of the major retail forex brokers are, Finam, eToro etc. In India some major players are FXTM, HotForex and HXCM.

Among individual traders, forex trading is done through the internet, by affiliate brokerage applications. Online forex trading is usually done on margin basis. This gives retail and individual investors the advantage of just pledging a nominal amount as a deposit and trade in larger amounts. The margin trading ratio can be very high and differs depending on the type of brokerage package you are negotiating with the brokerage. As the sign-up procedure for forex trading is increasingly made online, newbie traders can choose between different subscriptions and choose form the margin trading ratio which can go up to 200:1, which means an investment of $100 as margin can give the investment capability of $20,000.

Trading on margin is a double-edged sword as it augments profit and loss equally. Risk management is a very important factor when you trade on margin on forex market. For a successful foray into Forex Trading a brooding investor must evaluates the risks involved. The golden rule would be to make an investment minimizing financial investment and risk by not investing too much, i.e., never invest money you can’t afford to lose. Making healthy bids and betting on a particular currency based on the analysis of the different market parameters like stock market performance of the country’s indices, GDP estimates, Political landscape etc would ensure that your investment is safe.

Baby steps: Forex Trading

Forex trading is identical to the stock market trading in many ways. With the wider outreach of IT and internet services its easier for modern prospectors to foray into the bountiful waters of forex trading. The first step of becoming a forex trader is to choose a forex broker for yourself. Do note, before you make this decision many details can be missed, which would hamper your forex activities in the future.

The first point to consider before choosing a forex broker is to look for a Low Spread. In simple terms, spread is nothing but the difference in amount that you can achieve. For example, if the exchange rate for $1 is INR 68, the spread means the lowest iteration of value change the broker can offer, i.e., broker #1 might give you a spread of .001 or another one would give you just an increment or decrement of .01. This means that when you make a bid, you can make a bid for 68.001 with broker #1 and 68.01 with broker #2. In this case broker #1 gives you a larger flexibility for the bids you make and the ask you quote when you sell. Having a lower spread would help you trade in finer margins and increase your ability to make bids closer to the market value of the currency.

In technical terms, Spread is calculated in pip, which is short for “percentage in point”. Most currencies are matched and priced with four decimal points. A pip is equal to 1% of value. The value of pip can be calculated by dividing 1/10,0000 of the exchange rate. Even though most currency pairs are quoted to 4 decimal points, the Japanese Yen (JPY) forex currency pairs are quoted with just two decimal points.

The next important to consider before you choose a forex broker is to choose a qualified and valued institution. Contrary to equity brokers, most forex brokers are affiliated to large banks or money-lending financial entities. This is because of the nature of the business they are involved and large sums of capital is required as most retail investors trade on margins. While reviewing the brokers credentials, make sure they are registered with FCM (Futures Commission Merchant). The FCM is a technical entity in the forex trading ecosystem which pools the orders by individual brokers and they are the facilitators of the transaction by collecting margin form customers and delivering trade orders. The FCMs are regulated by CFTC (Commodity Futures Trading Commission) in the US. In India SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) regulates the forex trade brokers.

You can find the financial performance and turnover volumes of different brokers on their websites or the regulatory commission of the individual country the forex broker is registered in.

Another thing to consider before choosing a forex broker for your foray into trading in the foreign exchange market is to compare the tools and research provided by the broker. Forex brokers would be operating in different trading platforms and these platforms would have different features providing analysis tools and graphic diagrams and charts to visualize market conditions to compile all the information and the market changes helping you to make an easier decision on how to make a bid or sell currency by quoting an ask.

Lastly, leverage options or margin ratios should be taken into account before you choose a forex broker. The margin ratio determines the amount you need to pledge to the broker. IN return the broker would be providing an amount for you for trading. The margin ratio of 100:1 gives you a leverage of $100 to be invested in the forex market for a margin deposit of $1. But you need to understand that with a larger margin ratio, the risk factor would increase. A higher margin ratio is a good option when trading with a less volatile currency pair and a lower one for a volatile pair, thus decreasing risk and increasing profitability by reducing exposure to risk.

Analysing Market behaviour and making profitable investment

Successful forex investment can be made by tweaking your investment strategy, taking advantage of the different deciding factors of currency rates. The factors can be political or economic.

The economic policies of the countries and recent decisions made about the fiscal and monetary policies play a major role in the currency rate of a particular country. Short term investment decisions can be made taking into account the performance of different industries of a country or the performance of the agricultural or manufacturing sectors of the country or the major GDP driver sector of a particular country. The country’s balance sheet and the budget deficit play an important role in the long-term investment prospects of a currency. Economic growth GDP estimates, Trade balances can all indicate how the currency might perform.

Also, the political conditions play a vital role in making the forex trading prices fluctuate, Domestic political conditions like a political struggle against the government or war or international sanctions can have an effect in a country’s performance in the financial perspective and that would reflect in the forex markets. All the forex exchange rates are highly affected by political instability and the expectations and policy for cat for an incoming government. Making a note on the major events in a country can give you great insights on how the currency would perform in the forex market.

The forex market gives you an advantage of day trading 6 days of the week by analysing the market trends. Or you can choose to make use of the analytical tools provided by the broker to follow daily or weekly trends to make intelligent bids and sell at the right time. For long term investments, carry trading can be done, where you can buy and hold on to currency that pays high interest rates by choosing a forex pair, one with high interest rate and the other with low interest rate. This has the advantage of a rollover being paid for the difference in the interest rates of the two currencies. With a bit of effort in analysing the global trends in markets and being aware of the political and economic ins and outs of your target currencies, forex trading provides a great money-making platform for the tech savvy millennial.

-Written by Guest Blogger,Muhammed Suhail


How NEET Exam has changed the landscape of Medical Education

National Eligibility cum Entrance Test commonly called as NEET exam is conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE) of India for the admission of Medical seats in India. In this article, we will explore more about NEET exam.

State Board Vs Central Board
Before the advent of NEET exam, state governments and central government conducted separate exams for medical and BDS seats.There are two types of education namely state board education and central board education.State board education is conducted by the state government of India.Central Board education is conducted by the central government of India.State board education syllabus is different from central board syllabus.State board syllabus is created by experts appointed by the state government. It is usually very basic and easy to study when compared to other syllabus.Central Board syllabus is created by experts selected from all over India and appointed by the central government. It contains huge syllabus.It covers syllabus from very basic to very advanced level. Usually students feel very tough to study CBSE syllabus.

Exam Pattern and Students Intelligence
Exams conducted by state government is straight forward. Usually students have to reproduce what is there on the book to score marks in public exams. So students score huge marks in exams. Those students who are capable of memorising the syllabus can score huge marks.Only the memory power of students is tested, not the intelligence of the students.So students from State board score huge marks in exams.

On the other hand, students from Central board syllabus are tested with difficult questions. Usually the questions are not straight forward. Students have to dig their brain deep to solve the questions.Students often end up with low scores.

Calculation of Marks
Students from State Board get admission to Medical seats based on the marks scored in Physics,Chemistry and Biology as well as the marks scored in the entrance exam conducted by state government.Physics and Chemistry marks are divided by four and Biology marks is divided by two and added together along with the marks scored in the entrance exam. The total marks are calculated for a total out of 300. Those who get the top marks are alloted seats in Medical Colleges and BDS courses.Those who score less marks but want to study medical courses often get admissions by paying a huge amount and get admissions in private colleges.
Each state in India has their own pattern and give admissions to medical seats on the basis of merit.

On the other hand,students from central board write entrance exam conducted by central government. Students get admission to medical and dental colleges solely on the marks scored in the entrance exam.Usually scoring marks in entrance exam is difficult than scoring marks in public exam. So often students end up with less marks.

NEET Coaching centres
NEET Coaching centres come into picture at this point.People from all over India start searching for coaching centres to specifically score marks in entrance exam. Usually coaching centres collect huge amount of money.So poor people cannot afford big money. So they cannot join coaching centres. Hence they cannot score big marks in entrance exams conducted by CBSE board. Also not all coaching centres are good. Usually good coaching centres are available in cities only. So people from rural areas cannot join coaching centres. Also if you want to join in coaching centre, first you have to be economically sound and the student has to be in big cities.So it is advantage for rich and city students. So very often rich people from Tier 1 cities get admission in Medical colleges and Dental colleges.

”One India,One Exam”
NEET exam is conducted by central government. This exam is based on the principle “One India,One Rule ”.”One India,One Exam”. People from rural areas are usually poor. They study in state government syllabus. They cannot cope up with central syllabus. As the questions are asked in central syllabus,they feel like they are in the darkness of the jungle.Some students don’t even know the exact syllabus. They often do not find quality teachers to coach them to the central syllabus.This breaks the dream of poor people and students from rural areas.Even students who score centum in state board exams are not able to get admission in medical colleges through NEET exam.

Exam Centres in Different States
Central government conduct exams throughout India. So their exam centres are placed in different states. Because of this people from Tamil Nadu has to write exams in Kashmir and Rajasthan because the central government has alloted their exam centres on that state. India is a big country with different languages spoken. No one knows what is spoken on the other end of India. People from Tamil Nadu also do not know Hindi. This creates additional problem for Tamil students who have to appear for exams in North Indian States.So students go with parents which creates additional expenditure for travel. This adds to the tension of exams. Also they have to travel huge kilometers. Not all people can afford Air travel.So they have to travel more than a day in train to reach their respective centres. This creates tiredness for the students and reduces the preparation time for students. Some of the students parents were sick and two parents died when they accompanied their children to the exams due to bad weather, last year. This adds salt to wound. Students suffer a lot because of this Neet exam.

Tamil Nadu needs exception from NEET Exam
So state governments like Tamil Nadu has requested the central government to give exception to Tamil Nadu students, which the Central government rejected. Also in states like Tamil Nadu,there is reservation for Backward,Most backward,Scheduled Castes,Scheduled Tribes.On CBSE pattern NEET exam, this type of reservation is not allowed. So students from socially backward classes cannot join medical colleges and their dreams are broken.Also, people who are selected and got admission in MBBS and BDS courses are alloted in different colleges in different states. This creates lot of problems for freshers as they have to accustom to the outside culture and language.

NEET exam conducted by central government is beneficial for economically sound,city educated and socially forward people. Students from other walks of life has to suffer a lot.As “One India,One Rule ” theory has so many limitations, it is time to rethink the policies for the betterment of the downtrodden people so that they also can achieve their dreams of becoming a Doctor and serve the nation.

Early Pregnancy Scan


Women are wonderful creatures,created by God. Woman gave birth to all the people in the world.Before giving birth, they have a pregnancy period. Science and Technology has improved a lot. Previously,only after the birth of a child, we would come to know whether it is a boy or a girl.Due to the advancement of technology, a process called scanning is invented. Through this we can find out whether a baby is a boy or a girl, during pregnancy itself. In this article, we will see about Early Pregnancy Scan.

Western Women

In western countries, women are considered a boom to the Society.Women have all the freedom. Women are the wealth of a nation.Women participate in everything.Interreligious or Inter Caste marriages are common in western society.So there are no honour killings. Women have freedom of sex. Everything is fine in western countries. They like girl children. So when they take scan before pregnancy, whether it is a boy or a girl,it is same for them. So there is no problem with scanning during pregnancy period.

Women in India

In developing countries like India,Women are not considered as a boom to the society.Women has less freedom. Women are not the wealth of a nation. Women do not participate in all the activities.Interreligious or Intercaste marriages are not common.There are honour killings.Women do not have freedom of sex.Almost everything is forbidden in Countries like India.They do not like girl children.When they take scan before pregnancy,if it is a boy,then they are happy. If it is a girl, then they are not there is a problem with scanning during pregnancy period.


In developing countries like India,there is a system called dowry.In this, the parent of bride has to pay some money for the bridegroom.Usually they ask money as well as huge amount of gold.So the parents of girl child find it difficult to pay the amount.Girls who are born to rich, escape. Girls born to poor parents are in trouble. Poor parents try hard to get a girl child married. If they have so many girl children, then they find it hard to get them married. So they consider, girl children as a burden.So they kill girl child when they born itself.


In countries like India,Sex is forbidden. A marriage is the correct way to have sex. Anything outside of that is forbidden.During teenage period,girls and boys fall in love.If they have premarital sex, then that girl is considered as a bad girl. Usually the boy escapes. The girl who had sex, had to suffer.If she becomes pregnant, then if it is a girl child,again they kill the child because of social stigma.Usually the girl who loved a boy is often held separately. She cannot live alone.Her parents disown her. So the girl child cannot survive.So they kill the girl child.

Caste Factor

In countries like India, caste is a main factor for riots. Communal clashes also happen because of girls. If a lower caste guy marries a higher caste girl or vice versa, then the parents or brother of the girl kills the guy who married her daughter.So honor killings happen and this will create an enmity between those two families and it will be converted into an enmity between two castes and they become lifelong foes and this continues for coming generation also.If a boy is from a different religion than that of girl, then this results in Communal clashes. It leads to more communal clashes and it spreads like wildfire.Often,Bomb blasts take place because of communal riots. Because of that, some are branded as terrorists. It leads to another type of problem for the Society.All these factors led to the dislike of girls.

Early Pregnancy Scan

When they scan the child during pregnancy, if they found that it is a girl, then some people tell them to kill the child in the foetus itself so that future problems would not arise.This has become a huge problem in countries like India.So the Government has enacted laws which prohibit to scan, during pregnancy. As these people are illiterates, the Government has to enact the law. It is completely correct for countries like India to prohibit scans during pregnancy.


As literacy rate is getting high and social stigma is decreasing, there is reduction in the killing of girl child. But this law has to be in place for another generation so that this menace of killing girl child will be completely eradicated from the planet.

Shakes: The New Meals


In today’s world,one side of the world, there is poverty and malnutrition and in  other side,there is abundance of food.Because of overeating, so many diseases are coming. Type 2 diabetes is a common problem. It occurs because of overeating and sedentary lifestyle.Meal replacement shakes are solution to this problem.In this article, we will look about meal replacement shakes.

People eat traditional food like rice. It is rich in carbohydrate.Carbohydrates are the source of fat. People do not exercise. Carbohydrates are converted into energy.The unit of energy is calories. Carbohydrates, in the presence of oxygen, gets converted into energy plus carbon-di-oxide plus water.Proteins are oxidised to give energy plus carbon-di-oxide plus water plus nitrogen. Fats are converted into fatty acids and glycerol. All the food has to be converted to energy. If proper metabolism does not happen, then these carbohydrates are deposited as fat on the belly and in other parts of the body. If people do not exercise and sweat and make the metabolism correct, then the fat is not burnt. Otherwise these fats are accumulated in the belly and it leads to diseases like Type 2 diabetes.

People cannot live without eating. At the same time, they can skip eating with meal replacement shakes. Lot of meal replacement shakes are available in the market. They do not contain artificial sweeteners,carbohydrates,sugars,fillers or harmful chemicals as ingredients. One of the best meal replacement shake available in the market is 310 shakes.It contains proteins taken from plants. It also contain vitamins, minerals,Superfoods,probiotics. It gives 90 calories of energy.310 shakes are available in various flavours namely vanilla,Strawberry,vanilla chai,Chocolate,salted caramel,mocha shake.It costs around 68 dollars.

These shakes prevent the carving for carbohydrates,giving enough amount of Calories which the body want.So it is used by people who want to lose their weight. Also weightlifters,joggers,military people use these shakes a lot because they do not want to have a big belly. Plant based diet shakes offer three plant based proteins. They are

  • Pea Protein Powder

  • Brown Rice Protein

  • Hemp protein

Pea Protein Powder is used to activate hormones which makes the users feel like stomach full, thus preventing the urge to eat more.Also it contains branched chain amino acids or BCAAs which makes the users sit in muscle building state.Thus it helps in decreasing belly fat.

Brown Rice Protein helps you to recover the muscles after a physical activity.It keeps the users blood sugar level in a balanced state and reduces spiking.As it contains low fat, it helps to reduce cholesterol which is responsible for heart disease.

Hemp Protein contains lot of fibres and omega-3s which are good for overall health. Fibres are essential food for piles patients. Also it prohibits the carbohydrate carvings and increases the metabolic rate of the body.As metabolism happens naturally by drinking these shakes, it results in weight loss.

Also there are shakes available mainly for weight loss seekers and has different flavours also.These shakes contain whey based proteins which contains nine amino acids which are responsible for building of muscles,improving strength and reducing weight. 

Whey Protein Isolate:

This whey protein is a meal replacement shake that works fast and contains less fat,carbohydrates and lactose. It contains lot of amino acids which recover the muscles after workout.

Whey Protein Concentrate:

This whey protein is the well absorbed protein. This has lot of amino acids which are helpful in preventing heart diseases. These amino acids are good for overall health and it helps well in losing weight.

Milk Protein Concentrate:

This Milk protein Concentrate,when drunk,acts like a gel in the stomach and increases the level of amino acids. Increasing the amount of Amino acids,makes the users feel like full stomach, thus preventing the urge to eat more.

Vitamins,Minerals and Superfood:

Meal replacement shakes contain lot of vitamins and minerals which are present, 30% in abundance than the required daily value.Also it contains organic kale,broccoli,beet and strawberry. The users get all the nutrients and antioxidants they want for losing weight.


Another healthy ingredient available in these meal replacement shakes is probiotics. It is good for immune system and digestive system.These shakes supply the gut with good bacteria which helps the digestive system run smoothly.


Meal replacement Shakes are the healthy alternative for eating food. They have all the ingredients to  fight the diseases of the world today. So use it and stay healthy and live a happy life.

Tips For Improving Our Lives


All people in this world are talented. But they are not equally talented. Some are over talented. Some needs to improve their talent.They themselves have to improve so that they are up to the mark.

Food and Drinks

Food plays an important role in the development of human body and in particular,brain. A child starts to develop its brain when it is inside the mother’s womb.  So the mother has to eat well so that the child has a good brain. After birth also, child has to eat good food so that it gets all the nutrients and minerals. Malnutrition is affecting the talent of  most of the people in the underdeveloped countries.

Eating good food is good for health. But for some people,over eating is becoming a problem. The problem of over eating and living a sedentary life, results in deposition of fat, in the belly. This results in problems such as Type 2 Diabetes. This disease is one of the biggest problem facing the world today. People eat pizzas and start living a lazy life without any exercise. Also they smoke a lot. They also drink lot of liquor. Smoking and drinking are the two main reasons for almost all type of diseases happening in the world today.

People have to do exercise a lot. They should do jogging,swimming,cycling, walking etc. If we eat a lot and do not do any exercise, the food we eat is not converted into energy. The carbohydrates we eat a lot are converted into fats and are stored in the stomach.It gets accumulated on the stomach and results in huge belly. If we exercise, the food we eat is converted into energy, and hence the fat are burnt. So sweating is essential to burn fat. Also we should eat less food but quality food.We should avoid carbohydrates and fats.Also we should not eat any fried food. Usage of Oil should be avoided.

We should avoid using cool drinks as much as possible. We should drink coconut water,lime juice,orange,grapes,apple juices more. Natural juices are the best for health.Older people are stronger than us because they ate natural food more and drank natural juices and fruits. They worked hard. They exercised hard. So they lived a happy life without any diseases.


Health is wealth.Once we know, how  to maintain our health, we can easily earn money. Only when we are healthy, we can work well. If we are not healthy, our body won’t adjust and we lose concentration.So our work fails which results in loss of job and money and happiness.Once we eat well,stay fit and avoid tobacco and liquor, we can improve our lives better.Others would not come and improve us.We have to improve ourselves ie. Self Improvement.



The invention of electricity has changed the lives of human beings. Lot of devices using electrical energy were invented and it changed the comfortness of the lives of human beings.One such invention is the Jack Hammer. In this article, we will look about Jack Hammer and its uses in electrical repair.


          It is a mechanical equipment using electrical power. It is also called driller or electrical driller. It operates on the motor principles. When a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a torque which results in the motion of the conductor. When the number of Conductors are joined, it creates a circular motion or  it rotates.The rotating part is called the rotor and the stationary part is called the stator.The whole electrical equipment is called motor.

Jackhammer has a rotating motor in it. When electrical energy is applied to it,the motor starts rotating  and when the motor rotates, the chisel attached to it also rotates.So it is used to drill the walls etc. Hence it is called Electrical Driller.

Electrical Driller is used to drill heavy walls,wooden materials,rocks,pipes etc. It is used in the construction industry.It is used to cut the tiles.It is used to drill and put the holes. Electrical fittings are installed on the walls or on the wooden blocks.It requires drilling.For that,electrical drillers are used.

Electrical driller comes with various types of chisels. It comes in different length as well as in different diameters. So it used to put holes according to the diameter of the chisel blade.Some modern chisel operates with high power battery also. Usually AC or Alternating current is used. In U.S.,Alternating current comes with a frequency of 60Hz.In India, it comes with a frequency of 50Hz. It revolves 60 times per second or 50 times per second. Hertz is nothing but cycles per second. It is the unit of frequency.

Electrical driller is used for electrical repair. To put holes on iron gate, these drillers are used to put holes so that nails can be used on it. It comes in different colors. It is packed in a suitcase.So it is very safe. Also it comes with a User Manual. Using it you can study the technical aspects of the drilling machine. Also diagrams are given to fix the blades with the machine. Each blade is for different purpose. Most of the drillers come with 3 years warranty. It is available in all the leading shops. It can be purchased online. All country products are available in the market. Chinese drillers are cheap but the quality is not that much appreciable. If the budget is low,you can opt for chinese drillers.

It usually consumes 40 watts input power. It is very sturdy and rugged. Hence it is long durable. Its No-Load speed is 0-2800 rpm. No-Load speed is the speed with which it runs when no load is applied to it. rpm is nothing but revolutions per minute.The chuck size is 13mm. Impact drillers and hammer drillers are also available.


Electrical machineries are part and parcel of our daily life. Jackhammers or Electrical drillers are a must for electrical repairs. I suggest you to purchase a U.S. manufactured Electrical driller because its quality is really good.

Let Us Cure Sleep Disorders With Modafinil


Science, in particular, Medicine is advancing everyday. But new diseases are also coming each and every year. Scientists are working hard to cope with the invention of new diseases, with new tablets. Such a new invention in the medical field is Modafinil. In this article,We will look about the modafinil drug.

Modafinil and Sleep Disorders


Modafinil is a drug used for treating sleep disorders. It is a psychological drug. It’s brand name is Provigil,Alertec. Some people want to sleep more naturally. This disease is called Narcolepsy. Modafinil is used to treat Narcolepsy. It acts as a sleep awakening drug by changing the dopamine chemical in the brain.

Shift Work Sleep Disorder(SWSD)

Another form of sleep disorder is shift work sleep disorder. This type of disease occurs because the sleep in inhibited by the natural working hours of a human. Normally a human body requires 8 hours of sleep. Sleep is divided into eight sleep cycles,each cycle for an hour. When a human body starts sleeping from 0 minutes to 60 minutes,One sleep Cycle is completed. If a human body starts sleeping at 0 minutes and wakes at 50 minutes,then the sleep cycle is broken and it is not counted as one Complete sleep Cycle. Human body has to again sleep one hour to complete the cycle and it needs eight complete cycle for it to work well and get refreshed. Modafinil is a cure to shift work sleep disorder.

Idiopathic Hypersomnia

Another sleep disorder is Idiopathic hypersomnia . It is a neurological disorder caused by excessive daytime sleep. Modafinil is prescribed for this sleep disorder.


Modafinil comes as tablets. It should be taken orally with or without food.It should be taken at daytime for Narcolepsy patients. It should be taken one hour before the beginning of work for shift work sleep disorder patients. The usage of this medicine should not be discontinued even it shows positive impact on the patient. Overdosage of any medicine is not allowed. If a patient forgets to take medicine,then skip that dosage. Do not overtake it.

Modafinil should be prescribed by a Medical Doctor. As it acts with brain, do not use this medicine without proper prescription. It is not a habit forming drug.


Sunrise International Labs Ltd. and Cipla Limited are the manufacturers of this drug in India.Modafinil comes under the brand name Modalert and Modapro in India. Modalert is a brand manufactured by Sunrise International Labs Ltd. Modapro is a product of Cipla Limited. It comes with a nice aluminium package.It is readily available in all the medical shops and it is very cheap.

Other Brand Names

  • Resotyl

  • Stavigile

  • Vigia

  • Vigicer

  • Vigil

  • Vigimax

  • Mentix

  • Modanil

  • Modasomil

  • Modavigil

  • Modiodal

  • Modiwake

  • Movigil

  • Alertec

  • Alertex

  • Altasomil

  • Aspendos

  • Forcilin

  • Intensit

The above brands are also available and you can purchase these medicines online also. All the brands manufacture the same medicine. The chemical composition of the medicine is the same. So there is no need to panic with the amount of names. But price may vary. So better consult or check the price before purchasing or ordering the medicines.


Usual dose is 200 – 400 mg taken orally in the morning as a single dose.


Store this medicine in ordinary room temperature.

Side Effects

  • Nausea

  • Drowsiness

  • Diarhoea

  • Hypersensitivity

Consult the Doctor if you have any of the above symptoms


  • Do not take with alcohol

Expiry Date

Always check the expiry date of the medicine before buying it.


With Modafinil,let sleep take a sleep. Purchase Modafinil and say goodbye to sleep disorders.